COMSOL Day: Corrosion & Electrodeposition
Corrosion is an age-old problem that is now being effectively contained and prevented due to the advent of simulating the participating electrochemical reactions that occur and transport processes that affect them. The same principles can be used to simulate, design, and optimize industrial electrodeposition processes.
COMSOL Day: Corrosion & Electrodeposition will introduce you to new strategies in fighting corrosion and augmenting electrodeposition applications through mathematical modeling. The day will involve a series of invited speakers from industry and research organizations reporting on their experiences simulating corrosion, as well as parallel sessions involving presentations and demonstrations of the COMSOL Multiphysics® software by COMSOL technical staff.
To start, we will briefly discuss the format of the day and go over the logistics for using GoToWebinar.
Simulating engineering applications has long been the domain for simulation experts working at more fundamental levels of physics, such as fluid flow, structural analysis, and electric field theory. While this has served certain industries, such as automotive and aerospace manufacture, it has less history in fields that are described by more complex or multiple physics being coupled together.
Corrosion & electrodeposition are examples of this. Simulating the participating electrochemical reactions that occur and transport processes that affect them are rather complex to model and there is no naturally available tool for your average engineer working with corrosion & electrodeposition systems.
Simulation apps answer this need. Utilizing the theoretical knowledge and modeling experience of a simulation expert, engineers working on oil platforms, underground piping networks, ICCP, and the electrodeposition of copper can access simulation through simulation apps developed by the expert. Find out more during this session.
Harald Osvoll, FORCE Technology Norway
Corrosion damages cost more than 2.5 trillion USD each year worldwide, and cathodic protection is a common method to increase the lifetime of systems prone to corrosion. Modeling and simulation of corrosion and cathodic protection systems can be used to optimize the protection, extend operational life, and reduce costs by orders of magnitude.
FORCE Technology has developed and used CP computer simulations for almost four decades to optimize and verify cathodic protection designs for offshore and land-based installations worldwide.
CP modeling is an important tool for the analysis and evaluation of CP inspection data. This session presents examples of CP modeling analysis of electrical field gradient measurements from our FIGS sensor. These analyses have established the level of anode current; anode consumption; current density; and future state of corrosion protection systems for pipelines, subsea installations, and offshore jacket structures. Optimized/minimized anode requirements and retrofit solutions for life extension are established and verified. This approach has resulted in significant cost savings for offshore life extension projects.
Patrick Namy, SIMTEC
Electrochemistry has a wide field of applications in the industry, like corrosion, electrodeposition, or galvanic protection, for example. In all of these topics, several physical phenomena are involved and need to be considered to precisely understand their different interactions, including charge transport, heat transfer, and CFD. In many cases, all of them need to be considered to optimize the global process. As the French leader of COMSOL Certified Consultants, SIMTEC assists industrial professionals in their research using innovative approaches. SIMTEC has acquired strong experience in electrochemical modeling through its work in several industrial applications. An example of a strong collaboration with our client NAVAL GROUP is presented here. The topic is a localized corrosion by which local cavities, pits, are formed on an initially smooth metal surface and can propagate into the metal under some conditions. A numerical model of this specific type of corrosion is developed in this study. This numerical model is validated through experimental data. Different applications and numerical results are finally presented and discussed to emphasize the use of this type of approach.
The fundamental electrochemical behavior of corrosion and electrodeposition applications stems from the same equations with respect to the kinetic reactions that occur and transport processes that affect them. Despite the desired outcomes being different, the same workflows and strategies can be applied when modeling and simulating both phenomena. In this session, we will provide some examples and demonstrations that will exemplify how such electrochemical processes can be modeled. In addition to this, we will show how the democratization of simulation can be utilized to increase productivity throughout your organization through deploying and integrating simulation apps.
Learn the fundamental workflow of COMSOL Multiphysics®. This introductory demonstration will show you all of the key modeling steps, including geometry creation, setting up physics, meshing, solving, and postprocessing.
Galvanic corrosion occurs when two metals in electrical contact are also in the presence of an ion-conducting and sometimes hostile medium. The modeling of galvanic corrosion provides important insights into the choice of materials and their design, including on how they are joined and how they will eventually be affected by their surrounding environment. The session will specifically look at modeling different subsets of galvanic corrosion, atmospheric corrosion, localized (pitting and crevice) corrosion, and under-deposit corrosion.
Deposition of thin metal layers driven by electrochemical reactions is a common method in manufacturing industries, from the anodization and electrogalvanization of metals, semiconductor manufacture, and deposition of copper circuits in the electronics industry to the electropolishing of household appliances and jewelry. This session will guide you through the different aspects of modeling electrodeposition and show how simulation can be used to optimize the deposition process.
Tommy Zavalis, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
The cathodic protection of infrastructure is many times complex to design in a manner that accounts for both small- and large-scale objects. Mathematical simulations enable faster optimization of the protection and provides in-depth understanding of the system. The atmospheric corrosion of metallic materials is tested extensively using accelerated corrosion tests (ACTs) in climate chambers. Mechanistic (or physics-based) models can be used to expand the test matrix and to evaluate and improve existing ACTs.
Thorsten Eichler, CORR-LESS Isecke & Eichler
A wide range of parameters was investigated by numerical calculations concerning their impact on the DC stray current corrosion of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. A simplified model geometry was used to extract the relevant parameters and their interaction in terms of stray-current‐affected structures. This study mainly focuses on RC structures that are fitted with cathodic protection installations. The findings reveal a complex interaction between the investigated parameters. The possible relevance of further parameters, which is not the subject of this study, was emphasized.
When modeling real-life geometries, such as offshore structures, plants, long pipelines, or the details found within car designs, models tend to increase both in size and complexity. Handling large geometries and complex models is an important aspect of modeling, where efficiency can be increased and computational time can be reduced significantly by applying methods for CAD defeaturing or utilizing cluster computing. This Tech Café will guide you through some of the built-in features in COMSOL Multiphysics®, where you can learn how to be more efficient when handling large models.
A major aspect to consider when modeling galvanic processes is the fact that the overall behavior of the system varies once anodic and cathodic surfaces change or deform as a result of their corrosion or due to the films of other metals and salts that can be deposited upon them. Edge effects, dendritic formations, inclusions, and other space and electrocatalytic aspects of the system can change the overall electrochemical behavior of the system — sometimes quite significantly, even if in the micrometer or millimeter scale. During this Tech Café, we will discuss which aspects of electrode change and deformation should be considered and the choices that can be made to efficiently encompass these effects when modeling such systems.
Cathodic protection is a common method to protect major land-based and offshore installations of steel-based structures. The Corrosion Module has a variety of features that support the simulation of cathodic protection systems through the use of either sacrificial anodes (SACP) or impressed currents (ICCP). In this session, we will show you how to build an efficient model of a cathodic protection system and give insight into how to improve cathodic protection designs.
Achieving a high-quality plating of complex geometries with uniform deposition thickness, desired grain size, and minimal amounts of defects is the ultimate goal for a deposition process. This session will show that by understanding the physics of the process in the context of your geometry and your electrolyte, it is possible to design advanced pulsed plating processes with current duty cycles that result in smooth and uniformly plated surfaces.
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